The Cell as a City
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60128 interesting accessory Boston salt and pepper bridge Beacon Hill government centre nucleus Courtesy of Ashley Davidoff MD Davidoff photography
54912.800 Assault on Senator Sumner, 1856. government dissent nucleus The image is from “Images of American Political History” (http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/fi/000000ba.htm) and are purported to be in the public domain
A factory is a place that processes materials and converts or assembles them into a product that is useful to our society. Factories manufacture and process items for example that are essential to our survival, including food, drink, clothing material, and building materials. The glands of our body process, convert and manufacture products that are essential to our survival as well. The output of products in sufficient quantities and of high quanlity lies in the technique and efficiency of the workers and machinery.
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One of the first assembly lines was founded in the early 12th century in Venice Italy where ships were mass produced. The concept of collaborative effort for production probably came even earlier in ancient China during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (771-221BC) characterised by mills and manufactories. In the Song dynasty between 806 and 1078 AD cast iron facories were functioning as collabrative manufactories as well. (history of the factory)
In the early 1700’s the collaborotive effort was called the domestic system in Great Britain and consisted of only 3-4 people working in a private home to poduce textiles for example. In the instance of wool clothing production, the wool would be sheared, combed to isolate the individual fibers, cleaned, spun to produce yarn, and then woven on a handloom to create the textile.
In Great BRitain embryonic factories were introduced for the silk industry by John Lombe (1721), Mathew Boulton for the toy and “fancy goods” industry (about 1761). In 1769 Richard Arkwright patented his spinning frame in Great Britain and forever changed the manner in which people produced textiles. He created a workforce that quickly grew to 800 people by 1789.
In the 1800’s in Great Britain the coming of the industrial revolution mechanised the factories introducing newer tools enabling the production of greater quantities of products with greater sophistication.
The factory production line, or assembly line was revolutionised by Henry Ford, where the evolving product was sequentially assembled, with each worker becoming proficient at a single task in the production. The idea was inspired by the observation at a Chicago slaughterhouse by “Pa” William Klann. Klann noted that a single individual performed a single task in disassembling of the carcass which moved along a conveyor belt.
The concept of retaining the workers in a specific position of the assembly line where they could not roam about and the production of the whole depended on the function of the individual was the key to efficient productivity. The Ford company at one time thought about patenting te idea little did they know that if they would have looked at the factories of biology in the form of the glands
57736b01 people factory workers production line sewing Koseff
The liver is known as a the “metabolic warehouse” of the body. One of its functions is to take in the products of digestion – breakdown products of proteins fats and carbohydrates and build structures and chemicals that can be used by the body.
44426b01 liver hepatic clockwork purple anatomy Courtesy Ashley Davidoff Davidoff art
32353 tube colon small bowel lung bronchus bronchi esophagus stomach large bowel bile duct ureter tube principles fluid content modified Courtesy Ashley DAvidoff MD Davidoff art mucosa submucosa muscularis adventitia serosa histology
44428b01 liver hepatic metabolism physiology applied biology Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD Davidoff art after da Vinci
At the Cellular Level
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Ciliated columnar epithelial cell, bronchial brush, right lower lobe of lung. Courtesy tumorboard.com 54421 code lung pulmonary bronchus epithelium mucosa normal histology cystology
42707b03b45b04 breast mammary gland terminal duct lobular unit epithelium acinus acini myoepithelial cell duct ductule Courtesy Ashley Davidoff MD